Today the Bresaola had lost enough of its weight to be ready for tasting. This is a continuation of my previous post on making the Bresaola .
Started 1/5/19, tasting 4/13/19 The process took just over 3 months.
The meat was curing in the dry box in the basement with the dry cured ham and more dry cured pork loins (Lonzino).
The bresaola was weighed and pulled today . It had lost 44% of its starting weight.
The meat was covered with an even coating of the mold until I dropped it. So then I wiped it off with a damp towel and vinegar. So you can now see some of the surface texture.
First cut. You can see how dark the meat is.
A bit closer and you can see that the coloring is even across the meat with little extra darkening at the edges indicating that the drying was fairly even. Feeling the meat, the top end is a bit firmer and presumably drier than this which is at the bottom quarter point. The collagen is very well adhered to the meat, more so than with the pork loins.
Tasting – delicious if a little bit salty. Saltiness is comparable to commercial prosciutto. There is a hint of the rosemary and juniper flavors but very mild. The meat is very tender and almost a bit too soft yet. Hint of a “minerally” flavor which is I guess to be expected with the eye of round roast. Meat is very dark red as you can see and slices nicely. This has a stronger “meaty” flavor than the pork loin.
Putting the large piece back in the box for another week. Small piece into the fridge to eat.
Next time, I will rinse thoroughly before applying the collagen to get more of the salt off to see if I can reduce the saltiness. I had not rinsed much so that I would not wash all of the spice mix off.
I am making the Bressaola from an Eye of Round roast. This is based on the Bressaola recipe in Charcuterie by Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn. I have converted it to a slat and cure by weight and adjusted the herbs and spices as it is mid winter and my Rosemary and Thyme are only dry now not fresh.
After trimming the roast of fat silverskin and any nicks, it ended up at 1233g.
3% salt = 37g
0.25% cure #2 = 3g
1.5 tsp dried Rosemary
1 tsp dried Thyme
6 Juniper berries
Finely grind the mixture together until powdered in a mortar and pestle. I don’t like dragging out the blender for this and these flavors would not help my coffee.
Divide the mixture in half.
Rub the roast with 1/2 of the mix all over and place in a plastic bag in the fridge for 1 week turning every few days. After 1 week pull it out, drain any liquid and then apply the other half of the spice mix. Refrigerate for another week.
Remove the roast from the bag, rinse well removing the cure and spice blend. Place on a rack at room temperature uncovered for 2-3 hours. This will dry it enough to be ready for wrapping.
Wrap in 1/2 sheet of collagen, pressing it tightly against the meat and then truss with butchers twine. 2 vertical wraps and 3-5 horizontal wraps. Make a loop in the twine so it will fit over the dowel in the dry box. Prick all over with a sanitized sausage pricker. Dip in a solution of Bactoferm 600 (penicilium mold culture).
Hang in the dry box. This was taken after 1 week
Here I have it out for weighing after 1 week. You can see mold growth and it is much heavier where it bumped the mold covered pork loin.
Start before cure applied
Ready for dry box
end wt loss
Beware this is still an experiment in progress. Get the book while waiting for the tasting post.
TheSausageMaker.com: Dry Aging Collagen Sheets for Dry Aging Meats 22″ x 24″ (5 pcs) and Bactoferm Mold-600 (Penicillium Nalgiovense) and Sausage pricker. You can also order their products via Amazon but it is much more expensive but with free shipping. So if you need several things direct is cheaper.
As I mentioned previously, I really like dry cured ham. Prosciutto & Speck are great. However, I am still taunted by my family for the “salt ham” episode where I ordered a “virginia ham” off the internet. It was not popular.
So, with that lesson and others, I have settled on making my dry cured meats with “by weight” proportions rather than salt box or “cover it with salt” for x days recipes. The concept is that there is an ideal salt & seasoning to meat weight ratio. This give you lots of latitude on the curing time vs . immersing the meat in salt and pulling it at “just the right time”. From the research I have done, the immerse it in salt method seems to be optimized for production curing on an ongoing basis with tons of meat per day. However, at home we are not doing “production curing” we are doing a few pounds per month at most on an erratic “schedule” (try not to run out before the next batch is done) . So, I want small batch repeatability and the “by weight” salting / curing method wins.
This recipe is for a dry cured, deboned and smoked front leg ham. Yes it is a mouthful. In Italy and Austria it would be referred to as Speck. However the recipe here is not authentic to the region, but is sort of based on the “Blackstrap Molasses Country Ham” recipe in “Charcuterie” by Ruhlman and Polcyn . However, I have modified this to my taste (I hope). As I write this the hams are in the dry box. So for all intents and purposes this is an untried recipe as no one has tasted the results so far. That will come in a future blog post. So for the daring, here is what I did:
Take one fresh picnic ham (front leg) and carefully debone it. Care must be taken that you are not creating cuts / scars that will harbor bacteria or molds. The goal is to have a couple of piece of meat with a clean, unscarred surface for curing. The bone and attached scraps are saved for future goodies whether soups or plain old baked beans. Next, we must cure the meat. The slat and cure are by weight percentages. The spices assume approximately 1 KG pieces. You should scale up or down accordingly for what you have.
3% by weight kosher salt
0.25% by weight cure #2 “pink salt”
2 tsp Juniper berries crushed
2 tsp Szechuan peppercorns, crushed
1/2 tsp ground Coriander
1 Tb grated fresh ginger
1 cup brown sugar
1/2c cup dark molasses
1/2 cup rum -decent rum
Mix the above ingredients and set aside.
I started with a 8.5 lb picnic ham – skin on and bone in. The resulting pieces are:
The boned out picnic ham should yields 2 approximately equal sized pieces (skin on) . Take 2 large zip lock bags and place the “halves” of the ham in them. Now pour in proportional amounts of the cure in each bag. Place in the fridge. Turn every few days (2-5).
After 2 weeks of cold curing in the fridge, the meat should have evenly distributed the cure. Next the meat is removed from the bags, dried with paper towels and then set on racks in the refrigerator to dry and form a pellicle (thin tacky skin). Now is the time for cold smoking.
With cold smoking, it is important to understand that we are not trying to cook the meat at this point. The goal is to add smoke for flavor and reduce, if not prevent mold growth during the drying phase. The meat is cold smoked for 10+ hours. The Big Green Egg was the smoke chamber, with an A-Maze-N pellet smoker grate providing the smoke.
After smoking the upper edges of the meat were pierced for butcher’s twine to hang in the dry box (smoke aroma is good but a bit harsh about now). I used Traeger Signature Blend pellets.
The meat is then hung in the “high tech” dry curing chamber and now we wait. The white pieces are the dry cured pork loins.
I like Prosciutto, however it is bit hard to find round here not in a pre-sliced / pre-packaged form. Once sliced it does not keep well oxidizing and rapidly develops off flavors. Speck which is a northern Italian /Austrian version which is smoked and also has great flavor but is not to be found around here. Plus my wife objects to the $70+ dollar shipments from Amazon, which I order in the winter and then UPS then throws in the ditch by the mailbox rather than delivering up to our doorstep (another long story). However I can cut up the chunk, freezing some. I slice off what I need as I need it and retain the fresh cut flavor.
So after reading a few books on dry curing and watching yet more YouTube videos, I decided to tackle making some Country ham / Speck. The curing chamber was already constructed. So now the problem was how to procure the raw ham and then cold smoke before drying. The meat was easy as our local grocer – Woodman’s, had the fresh front legs (a.k.a. green picnic hams) on special.
Meanwhile it is mid-winter in Wisconsin, meaning my Big Green Egg was frozen shut (really frozen shut with > 1/2″ ice covering) and I did not yet have a cold smoke generator. I have smoked a lot of meat on the BGE but it has always been hot smoked (190-230F smoker temp) but for these hams we are looking for <90F smoker temp. After some research which lead to both very expensive and very simple / inexpensive options I settled on the A-Maze-N 5×8″ smoker which uses wood pellets. Nice and simple, no modifications to the grill or having to connect air pumps as on some of the more expensive models.
I melted the BGE open the night before for a steak dinner (see yet more http://bronkalla.com/blog/2018/12/31/koji-steak-and-crunchy-cheesy-potatoes/) and then propped it open with a stick of kindling for the next morning (no snow forecast and -10F temps). It took a few handfuls of kindling shoved in through the ash dump / vent and lit with a propane torch to get the left over charcoal going. The metal ring I made really speeds up the process taking the heat and applying it to the frozen gaskets. This has served me well over the last 3 winters. Go get some sheet metal at HD and attack it with tin snips. Size is not critical. Thisis 3x faster than trying to just let it warm up in reasonable (>10F temps) and the only way when it gets really cold (-10 to -20F , -20 is my cut off)
Next day I add a few big lumps of charcoal as spacers and place the A-Maze-n smoker with mixed wood pellets and get it lit. Once lit, blow out the fie, add the meat and walk away. Internal temp of the BGE averaged 46F over 10 hours (that is COLD smoking).
When doing my research on foods, especially fermented or cured, I have learned to look first for the “tasting” post or video then decide whether to look at the preparation posting or video. If there is no tasting video – just assume it did not turn out. Probably the best that I have seen are Gavin Weber’s cheese making videos. When tasting he tells it like it is – not all turn out and some are interesting surprises.
This experiment started back on Dec 15, 2018 and my first post on it was: Making Lonzino – Dried cured pork loin (Yes, I waited to see if it was a slimy mess or not before the first posting).
Over the intervening weeks ,I took a few photos and weighed the pieces to track the progress.
Starting at 1100 grams each the target for 30% weight loss was then 770 g. Today the spicy one was down to 789g and I figured it was ready to test. Besides I had to make room for a Bresaola that was going in. T
he last couple of weeks have not been optimum for drying as I had to move the chamber to the garage as I was doing some wood project finishing in the basement and did not want the fumes to impair the flavor. So I have been shuttling it between garage and basement depending on the temperatures (it reached -30F here) and extraneous odors (garden tractor which I use for plowing stinks on start up). This means the ambient temp has been anywhere form 28-58F depending on where the box was – not ideal. Plus I have been adding more meat and it may be tasing the little fan a bit with the added moisture.
Now is the time for the unveiling…
This is definitely a success. The flavor is just what I was looking for with the pork, fennel and pepper. It is a nice subtle blend. The outer layer of collagen and mold is discarded before eating (although it is edible). The texture is nice, but I want to dry it a bit more to get it a bit firmer. At this point is just a bit softer than prosciutto. I will probably trim the fat evenly next time. The meat is a bit softer near the fat layer. The outer layer of meat is a bit darker than the center which could be a bit of case hardening (outside drying too fast) but the texture really does not vary much.
Weights in grams
Stay tuned . More projects underway. Dry cured ham – similar to Speck, and Bresaola which just went into the box today after 2 weeks in the fridge.
I also brought some in to work and ran samples past a few of my friends. Overall the rating was excellent. Probably 60% would like it a bit drier / firmer but all want more. So, the other piece is going to dry to 35-40% weight loss and I will run another test. Overall, I am very encouraged by the consensus on the results!
Update 3/17/19 The second (plain pepper) piece was dried to 38% weight loss and the group appraisal was that it has better texture. However the fennel / spicy flavoring has the taste edge.
You really should not just take my first time experience as gospel. I did a lot of research prior to attempting this and I hope you do as well . Some of my favorite references are:
Charcuterie by Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn
Olympia Provisions: Cured Meats and Tales from an American Charcuterie by Elias Cairo, Meredith Erickson
Salumi by Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn
Plus a variety of youtube videos. Ignore any that post only a “making ” video but no “tasting” video.
My favorite youtube video is “making capicola” she reminds me of my grandmother and covers the wrapping in collagen sheets before hanging.
I love dried and cured meats. Unfortunately, Prosciutto is not good for the budget and very hard to make. So I have been researching again, and came across something that appears to be simpler – Lonzino. This is cured and dried pork loin. The recipe is based on one in the book: Dry Curing Pork by Hector Kent. Plus the wrapping technique came from Youtube.
2 KG (about 5 lbs) pork loin trimmed of all loose pieces and cut in half
The pieces I had came out at 1025 and 1030 grams. This meant I needed for each piece:
30 g salt (3% of meat weight)
2.6g cure #2 (0.25% of meat weight)
These are done by weight percentage, based on actual weight of the meat pieces. This is much easier doing the weights in metric units – grams than imperial units.
Additionally, there were seasonings needed:
Salt and cure # 2 by weight as above
10 g coarse ground black pepper
Salt and cure # 2 by weight as above
4 tsp ground coriander
2 tsp sweet paprika powder
2 tsp crushed red pepper flakes – no seeds – we grow Super Cayenne peppers
3 tsp freshly crushed fennel seeds
Mixing and refrigeration / curing
For each loin take the salt and cure # 2 and add either the palin or savory spice mix. Rub the pork loin thoroughly with the mixture and place in a zip lock bag in the fridge for 2 weeks turning every few days. Over this time each piece lost 25 g or so of weight.
Wrapping for drying
After the 2 weeks , the pork is ready for drying.
Each piece is tightly wrapped in 1/2 of a collagen sheet (from the Sausage Maker on Amazon) and placed in butcher’s netting. It is then dipped in a penicillium mold solution so that healthy white mold will take over the exterior and out-compete nasty intruders. The wrapped pieces are hung on a 1/2″ dowel inside a rubbermaid bin that is then placed in the basement shop which at floor level, is about 55 degrees in the Wisconsin Winter. The initial weights were taken and they were 1001 and 1004 grams.
Drying chamber and fan
The proper environment for drying is around 55 degrees F and 75% humidity. Reading the recipes everyone is talking about keeping the humidity high but my drying chamber is a large rubbermaid bin and the humidity is too high. I had sanitized the bin with Star San and left it wet before adding the meat.
So I took a 40mm diameter 12v fan, HEPA filter for a respirator, 12v wall wart power supply and the Inkbird humidity controller as the starting point.
The 3d printed pieces hold the dc power connector for the fan and the filter. I gave up trying to make the “ears” to hold the filter on the snoot and settled for hot melt glue.
You can find the files for the parts on Thingiverse: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3329979
So far the humidity level is holding nicely.
When will it be done?
The meat needs to lose 30-40% of its original weight. Maybe a few weeks.
After the previous success with the Koji rice marinated steak we wanted to try another to see if it is repeatable. The answer in short is that- It Is! The rib steak was coated with seasonings and the slightly crushed Koji Rice and placed in a bag in the fridge for 3 days this time. It was removed and the rice scraped off and placed in a vacuum bag for the Sous Vide cooking. Given that this was a nearly 2″ thick piece we went for 4 hours at 130F. After this it was tossed on the blazing hot charcoal for 90 sec per side and brought in to rest.
Meanwhile there were leftovers to improve. One of our family holiday staples is cheesy potato casserole. Teal makes the potatoes chunky rather than sliced and this is good. I enjoy the crunchy edges but there never seems to be enough. Given that Teal made an extra large batch for Christmas I had plenty of left-overs but few edges. So what to do? Here I take a hint from Grandma’s Polenta left-overs.
The potatoes and sauce set up rather firm in the fridge. It was actually sliceable (like cold polenta). Slice into 1/2 to 3/4″ slabs. Next they need to be coated:
1 c corn chex – crushed (in your hands)
2/3 c shredded cheese
Mix the 2 together well.
Place the slabs of potato casserole on the Chex & Cheese mix and press into the coating on both sides.
Place in preheated skillet with butter that has already browned and then brown the potato mix on wn both sides. Serve with the steak (or have as a meal all on its own).
I have been doing more research and some of the concepts seem to be a bit more than my wife is likely to handle. However I bought a copy of the “Noma Guide to Fermentation” and it brings forth many great ideas; as should a cookbook from a restaurant that has been ranked one of the best in the world a few times. One top of that as I have been digging around in the University of YouTube searching for ideas, I came across a video on Koji Sous Vide Steak. While the video is a bit obnoxious, I liked the idea and ordered some Koji Rice on Amazon. It is made by: http://www.isesou.co.jp/kouji/index.shtml
I broke off 1/4 of one of the packages and ran it through the blender to break it up. I should have worn a face mask, as the dust / spores rose up as I took the lid off, even after letting it settle a couple of minutes. The koji rice has a pleasant sweet flavor as is.
The roughly broken rice grains were then applied to the steak. I had a 3 lb rib-eye with bone (a good 3″ thick). Once the rice was applied on all sides, it was zip lock bagged and placed in the fridge for 48 hours (no need for vacuum bag at this point). It was turned every 8-12 hours, but this does not seem necessary.
After 48 hours it was ready for seasoning and sous vide cooking. The rice was scraped off with a chef’s knife. I was wary of undue flavors (for Teal) . Besides at the end of the sous vide cooking, it goes on the charcoal for browning and the rice would get in the way of that. So the rice was scraped off and discarded (maybe another use would be good next time). However there is is a pleasant roasted/toasted rice aroma added to the beef aroma – very nice. Now it was time for the Sous Vide cooking at 130F for 4.5 hours with Teal’s favorite spice blend — Penzey’s Barbecue of the America’s.
At the end of the sous vide cook, it was removed from the bag, drained and dried with paper towels. At this point, it still looks bland. The grill was already pre-heated with a pile of lump hardwood charcoal and blazing hot. The steak was then placed directly on the charcoal (no need for a grate) and moved every 20-30 seconds. After 90 seconds, it was flipped and again moved every 20-30 seconds. With a hot fire, like this, the fat renders off fast and I did not need to do the edges. However, if your fire is not “burning the hair off of your knuckles hot” then you may need to also stand the roast on edge to get the edges nicely done as well.
Overall, it is a great success. The meat is superbly tender and the added flavor is both mild and welcome. Not bad for $6.99 / lb rib roast Christmas special . There is a faint aroma of toasted rice added to the meat. This is actually really a nice added fragrance and made it harder to wait for the whole 10 minute hold time after pulling from the grill, before slice and serve. So how are you going to make moldy rice and beef? This is a great excuse to expand your family’s horizons with new foods.
We have made 2 more 18-20 lb batches as of 9/23/18. Each is as good as the last and leaves more room for experimenting with the spices.
It is definitely better to do the low temp smoke on a calm day. I am still having a bit of temp control trouble if windy as the Heatermeter does not yet have a damper. The problem is if the temperature spikes a bit, more fat renders off. With more fat on the fire, the temperature spikes and so on. Better if it can be held low and slow or you are a better tender of the smoker than I. Batch 3 was spiking on smoker temperature and was pulled at 3 hours. Batch 4 was kept low and slow for 4.5 hours.
The slabs of skinless pork belly we have been buying at Costco are in the 9-10 pound range. To best fit for smoking , they are sliced into thirds. We use a Large Big Green Egg with the 3 tier rack as you can see below. This was taken at the start of the smoking process.
4.5 hours later with the smoker temp at 190F, the internal tem is between 150F and 154F and has been there for the last hour. This is now food safe and pasteurized.
Net step is to refrigerate overnight, slice, bag and freeze. Ready for frying and raiding by the kids.
I have made many variations of pulled pork over the years starting with my Grandma’s Porchetta recipe. This one is a new experiment where the pork shoulder is wrapped in pink/peach butcher paper once it hits the stall so that it can finish to a higher internal temp without drying out.
For those of your that wonder why your roast takes so long to smoke and it never seems to get past 150-160F, that is “the stall”. At that point the evaporative cooling prevents the meat from climing higher until a significant portion of the water is lost. Then after a few hours (or seemingly an eternity when you have a bunch of guests coming for dinner) the temperature will start to rise. For many cuts such as pork shoulder or brisket, the final temp should be in the 195-205 range where the collagen breaks down. There is a big difference in the texture just going from 195-202 and then holding for an hour or so. So after doing more research where I was looking for brisket tips I came across the idea of wrapping the roast in peach paper once it hits the stall to accelerate the cooking and hold in moisture.
This is an overnight smoke with the temperature controlled by the HeaterMeter.
8lb Pork Shoulder / Boston Butt bone in . Trim off excess fat.
Start the smoker and preheat to 225F
Season liberally with granulated garlic, Penzey’s lemon pepper, Sinnamon Chipotle rub and salt. Rub it in.
Place meat on smoker (indirect heat with a BGE). This was at 6:30PM
9:30 PM reduce temp to 205F (not sure if this is necessary ).
6:30 AM internal temp was 136-151 depending on probe location. Smoker is still at 205F.
Wrap in 2 layers of peach paper. Return to the smoker and raise the temp to 275F.
At noon it was pulled from the smoker with an internal temp of 203F and placed in a small cooler. where it remained until 2:30. By then the internal temp had dropped to 163.
Pull apart and eat. It was juicy and pull apart tender. We had to hold most of it until dinner in the oven at 190F covered, with a bottle of Leinies Honey Weiss added.
Total time in the smoker 18 hrs. Hold in the cooler for 2.5 hrs but 1 would probably be sufficient.