Emptying the Drying Chamber

The drying chamber was full with Lonzino, Soppressata, and Pepperoni. Creating the Lonzino was covered in a prior post. This is “simple” dry cured whole muscle meat (pork loin). The Soppressata and Pepperoni are both fermented dry cured sausages. This takes a bit more finesse to ensure food safety.

Before starting on your own, I highly recommend reading: “The Art of Making Fermented Sausages” by Marianski. Pay particular attention to chapter 9 – Safety Hurdles. This book is not so much for the recipes per se, but rather for the background on food science and the techniques for keeping safe. The Facebook group: Cured Meats: Charcuterie is also very highly recommended. However, this is a closed group and you need to apply to join.

I had done some sampling / taste testing a few weeks ago and decided to let the meat dry a bit more.

I pulled the remaining meats today,as they were close to their targeted weight loss and I needed to get them out of the basement before staining the dining table. I did not want to risk the meats picking up off flavors from the oil based gel stain which would soon be stinking up the house (and yes, this is mid -winter in Wisconsin, so I can’t just open all the windows and let in the -10 to +10F winds).

The meats were all improved. I really like them around 45-50% weight loss and the added drying time improved the flavors. My new favorite for the Lonzino is the Pepper / Juniper berry spiced version.

Scroll back for the prior posts with the recipes.

Below is the temperature and humidity plots for the drying chamber while the sausages were drying:

Pepperoni

The overall process for making the Pepperoni is nearly identical to that of the Soppressata, except that it does not need to be pressed.

Pepperoni (started 12/24/20)

  • ~8-10 lbs Pork butts well trimmed of all soft fat and much of the hard fat
  • Salt 2.5%
  • Cure #2 0.25%
  • Dextrose 0.2%
  • White sugar 0.3%
  • Cracked Black Pepper 0.3%
  • Sweet Paprika 0.6%
  • Fennel Seeds – cracked / crushed 0.3%
  • Cayenne pepper – ground 0.15%
  • Gochugaru – Korean red pepper flakes 0.15%
  • B-LC-007 Starter culture 0.02%
  • Water (for the starter culture) 1/4 cup
  • Bactoferm 600 mold culture

Process as above for the Soppressata but there is no need to press. Smaller 32- 45mm or so casings would be desirable, but all I had left were 60 mm.

The first sampling at 4 weeks had hit the low end of the target weight loss (~35%) but were still a bit soft for my liking but made good pizza. This sausage is much leaner than commercially made sausage. There were NO puddles of grease on top of the pizza and it tasted very good.

Later, at 6 weeks (2/10/21) and 50% weight loss, the flavor and texture were MUCH improved for eating fresh. I can’t wait to try some on pizza!



Soppressata

Soppressata is a mildly spicy dry cured italian pork sausage. It is seemingly one of the more common starting points for dry cured / fermented sausages.

Batch 1 was started started 12/17/20

Sanitize everything! I sprayed the utensils, grinder, counter top, hands, etc with StarSan (same as I use for Brewing)

  • ~ 10 lbs Pork butts deboned, and well trimmed of all soft fat, connective tissue, silverskin, tendons and much of the hard fat
  • Salt 2.5%
  • Cure #2 0.25%
  • Dextrose 0.3%
  • Cracked Black Pepper 0.3%
  • Red Pepper Flakes – Korean Gochugaru 0.3% (finely ground and no seeds)
  • Sweet Paprika 0.3%
  • B-LC-007 Starter culture 0.023%
  • Water (for the starter culture) 1/4 cup
  • Bactoferm 600 mold culture in water bath
  • Coarsely grind the COLD pork ~ 1/4″ plate
  • Sprinkle the starter on the water and let rest for~ 15 min
  • Mix meat and non spice ingredients together well for at least 5 minutes. The mixture should be quite sticky due to myosin development when ready. Add the spices and mix for another couple of minutes.
  • Stuff into 60 mm casings (3x 24 inch casings). I use inedible collagen casings and tie mine at about 12″ length so they fit my high tech drying chamber.
  • Up to this point everything MUST be kept cold. Utensils and meat in the fridge or better the freezer to stay <40F.
  • Save about 1/2c of meat mixture and test the pH. The initial pH should be between 5.8 and 5.9.
  • Once stuffed the sausages are dipped in a solution of Bactoferm 600 (penicillium mold) which adds flavor and is a protectant from harmful molds. This results in the traditional white mold covering the casings. I use a bread loaf pan to hold the solution and then dip / roll the pieces in it.
  • The sausages then ferment until the pH drops below 5.3 (or preferably 5.0). Use a small sample of the meat in a cup / bowl for the pH testing. I use my kitchen oven for the fermenting. The sausages are laid directly on cookie sheets (Teal prefers that I do not place them directly on the racks). The light is turned on in the oven as needed (e.g. 15 min every hour) to hold the temp at 75-85F. This should take about 20-24 hours to hit the target pH of 4.8 to 5.0. In order to have a shelf stable final product the final pH must be < 5.3 (coupled with low enough water activity). Lower pH also gives a “tangier” product.
    With my Kitchenaid double oven if the light is left on full time the temp rises to 95F (a bit too warm).
  • Now the sausages are hung in the drying chamber for a week. Temp should be ~55F and humidity setpoint of 75%.
  • The Soppressata then needs to be pressed for proper shape and texture. I used pieces of vinyl coated wire shelving secured with tie wraps for this (yes this is the low budget end of the range / technique). The sausages are pressed for a week or 2 in the drying chamber. Tighten the tie wraps every day or 2 to maintain pressure.
  • Remove the press rack after 1-2 weeks and rehang the sausages to continue drying until they reach the target weight loss of 45-50%.
Soppressata being pressed in the wire shelving. in the middle. Top are Lonzino and below is Pepperoni.

After 7 weeks (2/10/21), the weight loss was 50%. The sausages were pulled and washed down with warm water to loosen the casings. The casings (with the mold ) were stripped off. They were then sliced for a QC check and taste test prior to washing in red wine and vacuum packing.

They taste very good, but I would like it a bit hotter / spicier and maybe some fennel (maybe do Finocchiona next?). I had one stick that had an air pocket and had to be discarded. I need to work on my stuffing technique and will heat to sterilize the spices next time.

My grandson Sawyer absolutely loves it. Here is a video of him helping to grind the meat:

References:

The Art of Making Fermented Sausages – Marianski



 

Spatchcock Chicken with Squash

We have been doing spatchcocked chicken, turkey, & cornish hens for a few years now. This past year we started getting food from Imperfect Foods as an alternative to going to the store. One of the times, I missed that there was a butternut squash on the order and it came. I am NOT normally a squash fan. In my family, it was always sweetened and served as squash mush. However, one day, we had the extra squash, some monster shallots and a whole chicken (and it was decidedly not nice for grilling outside). So I decided to try using the squash as the star under the bird rather than the more traditional stuffing, potatoes or root vegetables. It was a hit!. We have repeated this a few more times to make sure it is a repeatable recipe and we still love it.

The Base

1 butternut squash, peeled, seeded and cubed into 3/4″ pieces. COmpost the stringy stuff but add the seeds back in with the cubes

2 large shallots coarsely chopped or 1 medium onion and 2-4 garlic cloves chopped

1 lemon (optional) cut into 1/8ths with the skin (you may also want to add a few pinches of oregano in this case as well)

In a bowl place the above items and sprinkle liberally with granulated garlic, Penzey’s Seasoned salt and fresh ground black pepper. Mix well and dump into a oiled (or non stick sprayed) 13×9 or better larger glass baking dish. Keep the pieces towards the center as you want it all under the chicken.

Veggies waiting for the chicken.

The Chicken

Take a 3-4 lb chicken, clean out the cavity, remove excess fat and slice down the backbone and also the keel bone. Flip over and press flat (it should make some vicious crunching noises in the process) .

Place the chicken on the veggies. Spinke with more granulated garlic, Penzey’s seasoned salt, pepper and some rosemary sprigs

About to go in the oven

Bake at 400 F convect for about 45 minutes, until a probe in the thick part of the thigh reads 170F. Pull from the (now well splattered) oven and let rest for 15 min. Beat off the crispy skin thieves with a thick spatula (BTW the skin off an entire leg does not count as a schnibble). Slice and serve.

Ready

Chicken Legs & Thighs – sous vide + grill

The key to this recipe is to use both Sous Vide and grilling. Sous Vide properly cooks the chicken keeping it juicy and tender. Grilling adds the smoke and crispiness.

We started with a big economy family / restaurant 10 pack of legs and thighs. This was split into 3 batches. Trim off any large chunks of fat and tail if present. These can cause flare ups while grilling. I leave the legs and thighs attached, but you could separate them for easier portioning for kids.

Season the chicken generously with granulated garlic, Penzey’s seasoned salt and Italian Seasoning. Place 3-4 in each bag. We kept one out for cooking today and froze the other 2 bags for later.

Sous Vide at 158F for 4 hours. Add 20 min if frozen.

Chill the chicken while still in the bag in ice water or throw in the snow bank for an hour. You could also do this a day or 2 ahead as well and refrigerate.

Heat grill to hot (~350-400 as indicated on the BGE). Too hot, and you just burn the skin off.

Remove the chicken from the bag, pulling off and saving the juice / gelatin. Make sure it is all off or when grilling, you will have an immediate flare-up.

Place on grill meat side down and grill for 3-5 min. Flip to skin side down and grill until crispy – approx an other 3-5 min.

In the winter, don’t forget to re-insert the sheet metal ring when closing the BGE. This reduces the occurrence of the gaskets from freezing the lid shut. If it does freeze shut it helps in melting it open. See: Cold Smoking and Frozen Smoker Entry from more info.

Lonzino batch 4 – first one done

The first of the 3 Lonzino pieces from  Lonzino batch 4, that I started at the beginning of November is ready. For the first 5-6 weeks the drying chamber (Rubbermaid bin with fan for humidity control) was in the garage. Once it dropped below freezing outside, the basement was now cool enough (55-60F) to bring it to the basement.  Initial weight was 1122 g and final was 585g. My target was 45% weight loss.

It is delicious. This is the one that I spiced with Penzey’s 33rd and Galena (by eye).  The spices were applied at the same time as the curing mix.   I think the high humidity of the last couple of weeks, which was due to adding the Sopressata and Pepperoni to the chamber helped avoid any case hardening. 

As pulled from the chamber with a nice layer of mold – Bactoferm 600 culture
Washed with water and then the softened collagen sheet was pulled off. As you can see there was good contact and almost no mold under the collagen sheet
First slices.

The next piece should be ready in a week or so, it is just over 40% loss. The last one is being slow so it may be another 4 weeks.

I started this batch with “recalibrating” / adjusting the target setpoint the Inkbird humidity controller and adding monitoring using an Ecowitt temperature and humidity sensor and gateway to log to the ecowitt.net website. Now I can see how the temp and humidity tracked over time. You can see the temperature shift as I brought the bin ito the basement and then later the humidity shift as I added the sausages just before Christmas. I have more of the Ecowitt sensors in the garage fridge and basement freezer (which is why this is Channel 2).

Temperature and humidity plots captured from the ecowitt.net website
Full drying chamber with the other 2 Lonzino pieces, the pressing Sopressata and the Pepperonis in the front. The small containers (with the lids cracked) in the rear have the test samples of the sausage

Note commissions hopefully earned on the Amazon links

Meat Grinder Tune-up

I have been wanting to get into making fermented sausages such as Sopressata, Pepperoni, Salami and more. My sausage making has been rather limited as Teal is not a big fan of “tubular food” and each time I made sausage (summer, brats, Italians, etc.) it in the past it was painfully slow , so the gear would get set aside for another year or 2. I have both the meat grinder attachment for the Kitchenaid and a Kitchener #10 hand crank grinder. Both are slow to use.

Recently, I was making Sopressata with help from my grandson. However grinding in the hand crank grinder was too much for him this time. However he is a fan of the sausage samples we fried up and commercially made Soppressata.

Even for me it was difficult with the grinder constantly slipping on the counter and the blade and disc/plate getting gunked up. After grinding, I gave up on the hand grinder for stuffing and used the Kitchenaid (slow going). Stewing on this for few days, I was thinking whether I had to get a new grinder and stuffer or does the existing gear just need a tune up? The clue I needed was one of the grinder vendors recommending to send the blades in to them for periodic sharpening. I thought, this would be simple to do myself and then the light bulb came on: I had not done anything with either of the meat grinders! Basically, I was just using them “out of the box”. It appears that this is the primary problem!

I tune up and sharpen all of my knives and hand tools (chisels, planes, jointer, planer, etc). on a regular basis.When I get a new (or new to me- used) plane or chisel I spend the time to flatten and tune up the new tool. On closer examination of the Kitchener meat grinder there is a list of problems:

  • The discs / plates are not flat. Actually both are concave on both sides (how this would happen I do not know). They are not worn by any means, just poorly manufactured. You can see the coarse factory grind marks and no real sign of wear from use.
  • The knife is far from sharp
  • The plastic spacer they provide to go between the feet and the counter is some sort of polyethylene – slippery. We need something that will grab.
  • The feet are far from flat and have a very limited contact patch near the inner corners. This can be seen in the photos with the 2 small wear areas.
  • On the plus side the rear plastic bearing has a reasonable fit and enough thickness to push the blade against the plate.

The first step was flattening of the plates. You can use diamond stones 180 grit and then 300 or silicon carbide (wet or dry) sandpaper on the countertop (or glass plate or table saw or jointer) as shown below. Just wet the sandpaper on both sides and it will stick sufficiently for the flattening. If doing this on the counter, stay away from the front edge which may have some dish to it. It may take 20-30 min to do the initial flattening if they are poorly made (as mine were). However, subsequent sharpenings take but a few minutes.

If you have a hard time seeing the scratch pattern, cover the face of the disk with ink from a Sharpie.
After a few strokes on the sandpaper, you can see the high spots. Note both are concave. Worse yet, they were unevenly concave on BOTH sides with a poor / coarse grinding pattern.
This shows the grinding / honing of the disks on the sandpaper. You may want to try both sides to see which is “flatter” to save some work. You only need one side dead flat.
Getting better
Finished at 320 grit.

With the plates flattened, now it is time to sharpen the blade. For this you need something that can reach all the way into the corners. The diamond plates work well or you can use inexpensive small diamond sharpeners (often sold for sharpening fishing lures) . Aggressively sharpen the bevels, then do the flats the same way as the discs. It now actually feels sharp. So now this is getting promising.

Next was to address why does the grinder slip so badly on the counter? I threw out the stupid polyethylene spacer (which is slippery) that came with the grinder and used a rubber pad of the type for opening stuck jar lids, but this still did not help a lot. Looking more closely I noticed that there are 2 very small wear / contact points on the feet. They are FAR from level.

Note the dull patches on the feet. This is the only area in contact with the counter.

The feet need flattening. Given that this is cast iron, a file will do. Use a 10 or 12″ mill bastard file and carefully file the 2 feet flat. You must make nice parallel strokes or you can easily end up rounding the feet rather than flattening. Check that they are flat with a straight edge such as the blade of a square.

Feet after filing. Note the much larger contact area. More would be nice, but may not be necessary.

When researching other grinders, I saw the LEM #10 had a plastic/ rubber boot over the feet. This makes a lot of sense. So I drew up the foot and clamp pads in Sketchup and then 3D printed them in TPU (Thermoplastic Urethane) which is a flexible filament. I am using EOLAS brand TPU+, one of the softer ones for the foot and clamp pad, which they also claim is food safe (also great for gaskets).

With these changes in place, the grinder works far, far better. It grinds much more easily, does not clog as often, and no longer slides on the edge of the counter at all. I am still thinking about a proper sausage stuffer however.

The sketchup and STL files for the pads and a stuffing spider are at: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4695351

Lonzino Batch 4

Lonzino at the start of drying in the drying chamber. Note the fan at the left and humidity sensor on the front dowel

Now that the weather is turning cooler, it is time to make a new batch of Lonzino – Dry Cured Pork Loin. Batches 1 & 2 were Fantastic! Batch 3 was a bust, as I rushed the curing stage, and additionally it was partially frozen for much of the time due to a cold snap. So it smelled bad and most of it was brown not pink when pulled from drying.

With this batch it is back to the basics, for a thorough equalization cure. Nice long cure (3 weeks). Flip and massage every 2-3 days . The garage fridge was kept above freezing the whole time (in large part due to our record breaking warm streak here in Southeast Wisconsin). At this point, the meat is fragrant and firm but definitely not frozen. The whole pork loin was split into 3 pieces, each with a different spice blend. The loin has to be cut to be able to hang within my high tech Rubbermaid curing chamber and I like to try different spice variations. The whole pork loin was divided roughly into thirds for the various flavors.

 

Whole pork loin 2900g
3% salt by weight – 87 g
.25 cure #1 by weight – 7.25 g

Juniper and garlic piece (934g)
1% fresh coarse ground black pepper
0.1% freshly crushed juniper berries
0.25% granulated garlic

Cajun spice piece (909g)
Heavy sprinkle (~1%) Penzey’s Cajun spice blend

Hot/warm pepper piece (1124g)
Heavy sprinkle (1.5%) Penzey’s 33rd and Galena spice blend

Place each piece in zip lock freezer  bag (air removed) or vacuum pack and place in the crisper drawer of the fridge for 3 weeks.   I did put the cajun and hot pieces in the same bag but the juniper garlic was segregated.

After 3 weeks, wrap each piece in a single layer of Collagen Sheet. Then either truss with butcher’s twine or #16 netting .  Note that trying to pull the netting over the pieces will be frustrating.   It is far easier if you place the netting over your hand / wrist. Then grasp the meat from one end  with your fingers,. Now slide the netting down over your fingers onto the meat.  Much easier – done in about 15 seconds.  Tie off the ends and make a loop for hanging.   Record the weight for each piece.

It is recommended to encourage a white penicillium mold growth for flavor and to discourage unwanted organisms. I take a loaf pan filled with about 1/2″ of warm water that has been sprinkled with a bit of Bactoferm 600 (~0.5g).   The package will last for many batches. Fold over the open corner a few times, clip and throw in the freezer for next time.

Now prick the collagen liberally with a sterilized instrument (just lightly) and hang to dry. I use my low budget drying chamber which I detailed previously. Currently it is in the garage rather than the basement with a cold pack in it, as I am still waiting for the temperature outside to drop to seasonal levels.   Basement floor is still at 63-65 (too warm).

Please note per recent regulatory changes, I have to state that I may earn money from affiliate links (at least I hope so). 

Spatchcock Turkey v3

This variation has with more aggressive dry brining and more lemon. It is also gluten free. 18 lb turkey (Kroger or Jennie-o). Note that a Butterball will likely end up too salty.

Dry rub blend:

  •  3 TB fine sea salt
  • 1.5 TB Mexican oregano rubbed
  • 1TB dried thyme
  • 1.5 TB dry rosemary rubbed
  • 1 TB Pepper finely ground
  • Fine zest of one lemon

When rubbing the spices grind them in the mortar and pestle and then pass them through a strainer. Teal hates the “sticks” as she calls the woody pieces . Mix the spices and salt well.

Spatchock the thawed bird, cutting down one side of the backbone and splitting the keel bone. Loosen the skin of the turkey (including legs) and then rub the spice blend on the meat under the skin, on both sides of the bird. Rest for 6 to 18+ hours in the fridge. Place the bird uncovered in the fridge for 4-6 hours of this to start drying out the skin.

In the roasting pan, place 4 carrots chopped, 2 medium onions chopped 18fresh sage leaves chopped, 2 lemons cut into eighths, 1 sweet potato cubed, 5-7 cloves chopped garlic, 1 can of beer (gluten free so that Elyse can have some).

Place the spatchcocked bird in the roasting pan breast side up on the lowest rack of the oven so the convected air hits the legs and thighs first.

Convection roast at 375 for  1 hour adding an aluminum foil L shaped deflector tucked under the wings to keep most of the heat blast away from the breasts. Then 275-300 for 1 hour looking for final internal temp of 157F. Then pull and rest for 30 min prior to carving.

This was a winner and is the family favorite so far with multiple questions about what was new. Changes were not huge: put the spice blend UNDER the skin rather than on top for the dry brining stage, add lemons in the pan, leave out the stuffing (to allow for those with Celiac disease). The lemons added a nice flavor and the juices made for great gravy . I used rice flour as the thickener (~ half as much as regular AP wheat flour). Of course, discard the pseudo gravy gunk in the bag in the bird (it just inflates the weight).

To take a look at the earlier versions (and photos), go to: Spatchcock Turkey

Reuben Crisps

Reuben crisps are perfect party appetizer. They have been very popular with our family and friends.   The phyllo dough crust gives a great crunch. It is  a bit fussier to wrap than if using crescent dough or bread dough but you will be rewarded with a prettier and tastier treat.  If you have smoked your own Corned Beef or Pastrami, as I do,  all the better.

Filling

8 oz Thinly sliced and crumbled pastrami or corned beef
12 oz Shredded swiss cheese
12-16 oz Franks Polish style Sauerkraut
3 oz cream cheese
3 Tbsp Thousand Island dressing (Ken’s light)

Mix well with  your hands

Making the crisps

Thaw the phyllo dough,  lay out horizontally and then cut vertically into thirds, cover with a damp towel.

Take one strip of the dough oriented vertically in front of you. Place approx. 1 Tbsp of the filling mixture on the dough and fold in a triangle pattern (like folding the flag) . Brush with melted butter and place on the cookie sheet

Variations

Place a few slices of Cowboy Candy on the filling prior to wrapping.