Eggplant Caponata

I have searched for years to find a good Eggplant Caponata recipe.  This was started when I was looking for something similar to my Grandma Ann’s  Antipasto recipe but without the tuna and not quite as difficult to make.  What I have found in italian markets and specialty grocers never comes close. Hers was a food of love.

A few weeks ago an old friend posted a link to an Eggplant Caponata recipe on Facebook from: https://createtv.com/recipe/caponata+stewed+summer+vegetables.

I made it, and our family quickly devoured it (and I had a few bites for leftovers).

It is still time consuming, but  while not the same as my Grandmas. it evokes some of the same “food memories” and our family loves it.  So take the following recipe with a grain of salt (and maybe a glass of wine)  and adjust to the summer or fall garden bounty at hand. The grouping of ingredients and cooking technique are more important than the exact proportions. Having real garden (or farmers market) fresh plum tomatoes is one of the keys to success (as is the fresh basil).  This year I discovered growing San Marzano tomatoes. Great flavor and very low moisture compared to other varieties that I have grown.

Ingredients per batch

4-5 small or 2 large eggplants  ~2 lbs

1/2 cup red wine vinegar – boiled to reduce by half

2 Tbsp sugar

2 medium or 1 large onion

1 medium to large yellow or red bell pepper

4 ribs celery

1lb fresh plum tomatoes  – San Marzano are ideal. Frozen, thawed and drained also work, but you may have to add back some liquid that was drained at the end if things are too stiff.

1 cup green olives – castelvetrano or cerignola – sliced

1/3 cup small capers drained or salted that were washed and soaked in warm water. For either, soak in warm water changes a few times for 15-30 min total to remove some more salt.

10 large basil leaves – finely chopped

Prep and cook

Chop all of the veggies into 1/2-3/4″ pieces. There is no need to peel the eggplant or tomatoes.

Toss the eggplant with 1-1.5 tsp fine grained salt (Morton Canning and Pickling Salt)  and drain for 60 min.

Use your largest skillet, dutch oven or shallow stock pot. The frying will make a mess otherwise and you want lots of surface area for evaporation.

Pan fry the eggplant in 2/3 c vegetable oil for 15 min on high heat 0r deep fry at 365F for 10 min.  Drain and set aside

Saute the onion, celery and pepper in olive oil until translucent on medium heat. You still want a little bit of snap and definitely no browning. About 8-10 min

Add the capers, olives and tomatoes, vinegar and sugar.  Saute until the liquid is basically gone. About 10 min or close to 20 if using regular tomatoes (non-plum). Add basil at the end so as to not cook off the flavor.

Add several grinds coarse black pepper (~1/3 tsp)

Cool and serve or continue to canning while hot

Canning

For vegetables such as these,the pH must be below 4.5 and preferably around 4.0 for food safety when boiling water bath canning . Consult your University Extension if you have ANY doubts on technique. https://learningstore.uwex.edu/Assets/pdfs/B1159.pdf.

Test with pH paper. I have a roll of Hydrion 0-6 pH which I use for canning to give sufficient resolution.  If pH is too high, add more red wine vinegar or lemon juice and boil a bit more if too runny. Ours came out in the 4-4.3 pH range consistently over 3 batches.

Pack in sterilized jars and process in boiling water bath for 20 minutes

Each batch should make about 4-5 pints minus what you sample.

Pulled Pork – Paper wrapped 1

I have made many variations of pulled pork over the years starting with my Grandma’s Porchetta recipe.  This one is a new experiment  where the pork shoulder is wrapped in pink/peach butcher paper once it hits the stall so that it can finish to a higher internal temp without drying out.

For those of your that wonder why your roast takes so long to smoke and it never seems to get past 150-160F, that is “the stall”. At that point the evaporative cooling prevents the meat from climing higher until a significant portion of the water is lost. Then after a few hours (or seemingly an eternity when you have a bunch of guests coming for dinner) the temperature will start to rise.  For many cuts such as pork shoulder or brisket, the final temp should be in the 195-205 range where the collagen breaks down. There is a big difference in the texture just going from 195-202 and then holding for an hour or so.   So after doing more research where I was looking for brisket tips I came across the idea of wrapping the roast in peach paper once it hits the stall to accelerate the cooking and hold in moisture.

This is an overnight smoke with the temperature controlled by the HeaterMeter.

8lb Pork Shoulder / Boston Butt bone in . Trim off excess fat.

Start the smoker and preheat to 225F

Season liberally with granulated garlic, Penzey’s lemon pepper, Sinnamon Chipotle rub and salt.  Rub it in.

Place meat on smoker (indirect heat with a BGE). This was at 6:30PM

9:30 PM reduce temp to 205F  (not sure if this is necessary ).

6:30 AM internal temp was 136-151 depending on probe location.  Smoker is still at 205F.

Wrap in 2 layers of peach paper. Return to the smoker and raise the temp to 275F.

At noon it was pulled from the smoker with an internal temp of 203F and placed in a small cooler. where it remained until 2:30. By then the internal temp had dropped to 163.

Pull apart and eat.   It was juicy and pull apart tender.  We had to hold most of it until dinner in the oven at 190F covered,  with a bottle of Leinies Honey Weiss added.

Total time in the smoker 18 hrs. Hold in the cooler for 2.5 hrs but 1 would probably be sufficient.

 

Drunken Ribs

This week had an unusual discussions at work about cooking and I am prepping for a party tomorrow where we will be serving Drunken Ribs and the Coke Smoked Chicken. I just realized that I have not posted the recipe for Drunken Ribs which is a family get together staple.

The recipe will seem like heresy to some southerners and folks from KC . However as we have traveled around the country, my family still likes these the best. Simple, repeatable, fall off the bone tender and leaner than most. We have been making these for close to 30 years.  Weather has been everything from 100F and humid in the summer to -20F snow blowing sideways in the winter (and that IS my cut off) .

The secret is braising then grilling low and slow. It is also a great way to use up that light or sweet beer that is left over from the last family visit or party. Save the “good stuff” for drinking. Too much hop flavor actually ruins this  (and other beer braises).  Depending on the flavor level you want everything from Coors Light (nearly water), Leinie’s Honey Weiss, or a nut brown will all work .

The braise is done in a stock pot that just fits the ribs. Not too big. Sometimes when making a big batch (9 racks), then we need 2 pots.  We use baby back ribs. Choose carefully  as you want the really meaty ones, not the skinny “on sale” family packs that have almost no meat covering the bones. Most often we get the cryo packs of 3 racks of baby back pork ribs from Costco.  Pork or beef spare ribs also work but the baby back pork ribs have been the year in – year out favorite.

Quantities are not critical. Ratios at play. Make as big or small of a batch as you wish. Normally we do 3 meaty racks and that is what the recipe is normalized to.

3 meaty racks of ribs

3 medium onions  sliced 1/4″ thick

1/2 -2/3 cup chili powder

3 cans and 1 TBsp beer

Slice the racks of ribs into “rib pairs”. At the end you may end up with a 3 rib end piece and that is Ok.

Cover on all sides with chili powder. It takes nearly 1/2 cup for 3 racks.   We generally use Tones but you can step it up and use Penzey’s.

Take a medium to large stock pot. Put the ribs in on edge packing them in tightly.  Now put the slices of onions between the ribs. As you finish, it should be hard to add more onions, but persevere.

Depending on the size of your pot you may need to add another layer of ribs and onion. The goal is to have tightly packed layers. Otherwise you need a lot of beer and the flavor gets diluted.

Cover and place in  a 300F oven for 3 hours .    Note that you can braise the ribs a day or 2 before and then put them in the fridge ready for grilling. After being cooked in this manner, most of the fat has floated off and the meat is very tender, but is too soft. Grilling firms up the meat, removes most of the rest of the fat and caramelizes the sugars.

Pre heat the grill on high and reduce to low heat before adding the ribs.

Place ribs meaty side down on the grill. Based the top and sides with barbeque sauce. We use Sweet Baby Rays. If you make your own, all the better. Close the grill and cook for 20 min . At the end the meat should be browning nicely and bubbling and the sauce will be starting to thicken and caramelize .

Flip the ribs and again baste liberally with BBQ sauce on top and sides.  Cook for 20 min more. Sauce on top should be thick and caramelized. Bottoms should be dark but not burnt.

Serve and enjoy. These will be nice and tender and with less fat remaining on than most other recipes.

The juice left over from braising the ribs also makes a darn good base for home made baked beans after skimming off the fat.

 

Makin’ Bacon 2

Makin’ Bacon 2

After the success of Makin Bacon and then being raided by the kids, we needed more.   The pork belly  was a bit more difficult to procure than we had envisioned.  Pork belly can be hard to find in retail establishments on a regular basis. Locally: Panos, a few butcher shops and even Costco had none. When were in Oregon last month Colin and Jean took us to a great restaurant supply place which had some, but it was not likely to survive the trip back to Wisconsin.   So we kept looking…  On our last trip to Costco, I stopped to ask the butcher and he showed me where it was hidden (under the pork loins).   So we bought 2 packages and happily headed home with 20 pounds of pork belly.

 This lead to  Batch 2

This was started 6/30/18 and using the same curing mix as we had previously used, we had:

15 lbs  in 3×5 lb slabs with 75g of cure blend  each

5lb slab with 80 g cure blend  plus  2 tsp Penzey’s BBQ3000 and 1Tbsp crushed black pepper

These went into the garage fridge for a week  in the covered with Saran wrap in the crisper drawers and were then turned once per day. At the end (day 6),  they were pulled out, rinsed and then placed on racks over jelly roll pans for a day in the fridge. This gives the meat a chance to dry on the surface and develop a “pellicle”. The idea here is to dry the surface of the meat a bit so the smoke can penetrate without creating a nasty sooty film.

Smoking

The BGE was set for 220F and the slabs were placed on the 3 tier  rack. At this point I realized that 5 lb slabs were too big for the Large BGE with the 3 tier rack and then had to slice them into smaller sections. Next time I will cut the meat into  3 lb slabs .

These were smoked at 220F for 2.5 hours . The meat was at 150F at  50 minutes and then held more or less . However, once again at the end of the time the fire kept raising despite being damped down and controlled with the  HeaterMeter.   I think that eventually the fat dripping off causes too much combustion to control. So at that point, I pulled the slabs. These were then wiped down with paper towels to remove any excess grease and soot and then placed on racks in the garage fridge to cool for slicing.

Slicing and bagging

We sliced for “normal bacon” thickness.  The slices were stacked and vacuum bagged. Teal insisted that the “spicy” be kept form the “normal” bacon.   However on taste testing she actually liked the BBQ3000 version, but just not for breakfast.

So we have not only another successful batch, but are starting to prove out that the reduced salt and reduced nitrates cure actually works !  The bacon is delicious as proven by frying up samples as we sliced and bagged. The color is great  – nice pink meat.  So I think we have a successful recipe. We will do another batch in a month (or sooner if the kids raid the freezer too much).

20 packages including one of the “ugly bits” which are destined for salads and baked beans.

Next time we will do more of the BBQ3000 version . It is delicious and I can’t wait for the tomatoes to be ready for BLTs.

Lightly Smoked Chicken

The Chicken

It was brutally hot and humid this weekend (at least for Wisconsin, 78-80 F dew point is not my favorite).  So we were looking for something that we could make that did not not require much attention allowing us to retreat to the air conditioned indoors while it cooked.

The goal was to have a brine that was not critical for timing and then to smoke / grill also at a non-critical temp that did not require constant attention in the miserably hot and humid weather.  We chose legs and thighs to provide juiciness and flavor (and the price was right for thigh and leg quarters.).

We prefer to have air chilled chicken that is not already loaded up with a  brine of questionable contents. In our area the Smart Chicken brand fits the bill. By the time we finished, thunderstorms had moved through the area producing a nearly 20 F degree drop in temperature and providing a pleasant evening.

Brine

5 cups cold water

2 lemons quartered, squeezed of juice into the brine and then thrown in

5 TB Mortons Kosher salt. We are aiming for a 5% brine. Other brands will vary a LOT.

3 nice fresh bunches of sage, oregano and thyme. 3-5 stems each . Leaves of the thyme stripped from the stems and the balance chopped finely.

1 tsp fresh coarse ground black pepper

Stir the brine until the salt is disolved

Add the chicken which has been broken down into the primal cuts. Legs are cut from thighs, etc. You want the recognizable pieces that folks will eat with their fingers .

Put the chicken in the brine and refrigerate for 2-12 hours. Remove, pa dry with paper towels and air dry on a rack at room temperature for 30-120 min . This is critical to dry the skin a bit, develop the “pellicle” and avoid sooty chicken.  The chicken will not be in the “danger zone” long enough to worry.

This light 5% brine will not over-salt the chicken so the time is not critical. We did 5 hours for this batch.

Grill

Start the grill / smoker with lump hardwood charcoal.  Add a couple of good sized chunks of a fruitwood just before adding the chicken. We use cherry.

Close the grill vents down so the grill stays at about 275F . Add the chicken on direct heat skin up. After 30-60 min flip and cook for an additional 30-45 min.  Remove and serve. Skin should be nicely bronzed and slightly crispy.  With the relatively low temps the times are not critical. You do have to watch for fat flare ups that may mar the bronzed perfection.

Yum.

 

 

Canadian Bacon

With the low price specials on whole pork loins ($1.99 /lb for 10lbs),  I could no longer resist making some Canadian Bacon (or Back Bacon as they call it up there).  The recipe is based on the one in Charcuterie by Ruhlman and Polcyn with some more spices added. I have not yet adjusted the salt and pink salt as this is my first attempt and we generally don’t cook this until browned as we do with Bacon.

Brine

  • 4 liters (2 gallons) water
  • 650 grams kosher or pickling salt
  • 480 grams white sugar
  • 75 grams pink salt / Cure #1
  • 1 TB ground Nutmeg
  • 1 TB ground Allspice
  • 1 TB granulated Garlic
  • 2TB dried Sage
  • 2TB dried Thyme
  • 2 Bay leaves crumbled

I would have used fresh herbs but they are not up yet this spring.

Mix well. Note the salts and sugar are by weight. This is important as the density varies dramatically between types and brands.

Brining

Cut the pork loin in half. Trim off the silverskin and surface fat. This was a 10.5 lb pork loin after trimming.

Submerge in the brine and weight down with a plate or 2. Place in refrigerator for 48 hours. Since I was also doing a batch of Smoked Chicken Legs and Thighs  at the same time, this ended up in the crisper drawer of the garage fridge. This is actually quite convenient.

Cook and taste a sample to check for saltiness.  Slice a couple pieces off the end, rinse and pan fry. At the 36 hour point it was a bit saltier than we like so half the brine was poured off and replaced with water.

At 48 hours Remove, rinse and pat dry. Taste test again.  If OK place back in the fridge uncovered for 12 hours to equalize and from the pellicle.

Smoking

Hot smoke with cherry wood at 230F, until an internal temp of 150 degrees has been held for 30 -60 min. This takes about 4 hours. At this point, it is fully cooked and could be served ready to eat. Ours is slabbed like smoked pork chops and thin sliced for pizza and sandwiches.

The verdict

Delicious. Teal said we may never buy ham again!

 

Multigrain Sourdough

Another variation on the Multigrain Sourdough Boule from the King Arthur Flour website.  Each iteration is improving.

Starter

The night before ,feed the starter using 1/2 c starter , 2 cups flour, 1.5 to 1.75 cups warm water. Cover and rise over night at room temp +.   Our lower oven after baking in the top one is perfect. Using the proof setting of 100F  is actually too warm and the rise is not as nice later.

Ingredients

  • 1.5c KAF Harvest Grains Blend  + 1/4c poppy seeds
  • 1c boiling water
  • 3c fed starter
  • 2c whole wheat flour
  • 1.5 c bread flour
  • 3 TB sugar
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 2 tsp Instant yeast (I use SAF)

Add the harvest grains to the water and let soak for 20 min

Mix and rise

Mix everything together and let sit for 30 min to hydrate the flour. This is especially important for whole grain flours.  Huge improvement in texture

Knead for 7 min  – Kitchenaid with dough hook and #2 . Mixer will get warm.   Dough will be soft moist, and very sticky

First rise 90 min at 100F in the mixer bowl covered with a hot wet dish towel.

Liberally butter the inside of a dutch oven (including the lid).

After the first rise scrape the dough into the dutch oven. No need to knead. Even out the top. Cover with the wet towel again .

Rise again for 40-60 minutes at 100F until doubled.

Bake

Preheat oven to 425F .

Move to the hot oven and bake covered on convect for 30-35 min.

Uncover and continue baking 10-20 min and check the internal temp. 190F is done.

Remove from oven when done. Rest in pan for 5 min, then turn out onto wire rack.

Eye of Round Roast

Rare Roast Beef sandwiches

Having the ideal tools now in hand I decided to tackle one of the tastier but more difficult cuts of meat to do well. This is the Eye of round.

This bullet shaped piece of meat is extremely lean and has sinewy bands through it. If you are not careful it can end up tough and chewy.

However prepared this way it is tender and delicious. The  secret is in not overcooking the meat and then slicing it extremely thinly . This cuts through the connective tissue and makes for a very tender sandwich without pieces sliding out of the sandwich when you take a bit but cannot easily bite through.

Spice blend

1TB freeze dried shallots (Penzey’s)  – ground in mortar and pestle

1TB Italian Seasoning  – add to the shallots and grind finely

1tsp Penzey’s seasoned salt -4S

2tsp granulated garlic

Cook and serve

Coat the roast with the spice blend and seal in a vacuum bag

Cook sous vide at 136F for 8 hours.  Some recipes call for 24-36 hours

Remove from the bag reserving the juice and pat dry

Sear directly over charcoal with cherry wood chunks. This will give a nice crust in 60-90 seconds per side. Brown all of the sides and the flat end . The browning adds a nice flavor component especially with the seasoning blend used.

Set aside to cool . I placed ours in the freezer for 30 min

Slice thinly. I set the meat slicer to 1.25. The rare meat stays together in nice thin slices and does not crumble as it might with a longer cooking time.

Serve on hard rolls with fried onions and cheese. Teal likes Muenster.  I prefer blue or Montamore with a good mustard.  this is time to break out one of the exotic ones

Store the rest of the meat in a closed container. Add the reserved juice and pack down. This will minimize the oxygen exposure preserving the flavor for 10 days or until gone.

Teal says this is her favorite sous vide recipe so far.

Penzeys spices https://www.penzeys.com/ is a local company with stores across the US.   Truly superior spices and a wonderful  view f public policy.

Makin’ Bacon

Background

We had been searching for a lower nitrate bacon alternative. This is due to the nitrates combining with the meat and forming nitrosamines when cooked at high temperatures (e.g when you cook the bacon until crispy). The so called “uncured” bacons that we had found uses celery juice or extract rather than Sodium Nitrite.  However celery is very rich in naturally occurring nitrates. The uncured bacons with the celery  in many cases have MORE nitrates in them than  than those made with sodium nitrite! See this article where it was quantified. https://www.cooksillustrated.com/ho…/5734-nitrate-free-bacon.

We also prefer a less salty bacon and with a mild smoke flavor such as from apple or cherry.  We have an abundance of cherry wood for smoking.

So I did some research, on the web, bought the book Charcuterie by Michael Ruhlman, and talked to co-workers. Finally, I was confident I could do this and set out to buy some pork belly (where did I see it in a store last?).   After a few false leads I ended up at a small local grocery with its own butcher shop – Panos in Waukesha.  There I procured an 11 lb slab of meaty pork belly – skin on.   I took it home and the skin came off without too much trouble.  I tried making chicharrones but that was a disaster.   However the bacon turned out great!

One of the important things when curing meats is to do everything by weight, not volume. The density of salt can vary by two to one (e.g table or canning salt vs a coarse kosher salt.  I dry cured the bacon for a week before smoking.  The cure recipe below has far lower levels of nitrite than any of the recipes I found on the web. The justification for the lower level still being safe is the bacon will be cured in a refrigerator, hot smoked and then eaten quickly or frozen. This minimizes the chances of botulism growth.  I would not try this low a level for a dried salami or other products cured at room temperature (but those are not generally cooked crispy either).

Basic Dry Cure (adapted from Charcuterie)

450 grams kosher or canning salt

225 grams white sugar

28 grams pink salt (cure #1)   – note this is HALF of the amount recommended in the book

This was mixed up and then applied to the meat. I had 2 pieces 1.9KG and 2.2 KG which used 70g and 85g respectively (approximately 1/4 cup) .   The cure was rubbed in well. The balance is in a jar waiting for the next project.

The smaller piece was to be spicier.  TO this I added the following:

3 bay leaves crushed

4 large cloves garlic finely chopped

1.5 tablespoons black pepper coarsely cracked (next time I will double this)

1 teaspoon ground nutmeg

The spices were mixed and then rubbed all over the piece.

The bacon to be slabs were placed in glass baking dishes and covered with plastic wrap and then put in the fridge in the garage. They were turned once a day. The weather was unseasonably cold so the fridge temps were probably lower than planned (26 degrees when I inserted the probes for smoking).  There was not much liquid given off.

Smoking prep

The night before smoking, the bacon was rinsed well and then placed on skewers over the baking dishes and returned to the fridge uncovered. This allowed the outer layer to dry and from a pellicle which helps the smoke penetration.

Smoking

The Big Green Egg was fired up and set for indirect heat. 2″ thick chunks of cherry branches were placed on the charcoal. The Heatermeter was set for 205 degrees. Temperature probes were placed in the thickest part of each slab.  It was a very windy cold drizzly and snowy day  (good thing the Heatermeter case is waterproof).  When the meat hit 130 degrees I rotated each by 180 degrees so the outer edges would not get too done  as the slabs filled the grill and were not entirely shielded from direct heat.  At 3 hours the meat was 150 to 175 degrees and the smoker temp was rising due to the high winds (I don’t have a damper on the fan yet) . So I pulled the bacon off the smoker and put it back in the fridge.

Taste

This bacon is great. The right level of salt and spices and very meaty. Nice pink color even with the low nitrite level. I had taken a few strips the night before smoking to taste and make sure it was not too salty . However it did not fry up near as well as the smoked bacon.

Teal and I like both flavors and the savory one will be great for salads, BLTs, etc. The bacon cooks up very crisply.

At the moment the house smells like a good old fashioned butcher shop and smoke house – yum.

Slicing

We got a new meat slicer for this and other cooking projects. It worked like a charm. So easy and consistently thin slices (the way Teal likes them).   Of course you could slice by hand especially if you like thick cut bacon. It will just take longer and you would probably want to slightly freeze the meat before slicing to firm it up even more. The bacon was then divided up and vacuum packed for freezing.  We ended up with almost 8 lbs of finished bacon.

Conclusion

This is definitely something we will do again. There is not a huge amount of applied time involved, but you do have to wait for the meat to cure.  Not hard and a great payoff. While the bacon was smoking, David and I also brewed up 2 batches of beer .  Teal was very patient with us and helped out as well.

We have bacon that tastes great and we know exactly what has gone into it.

Next I wonder about doing some pork loins for canadian bacon. They were on sale last I looked.

 

Beef Stew (a.k.a. Beef Bourguignon)

Beef stew

One of our favorite mid-winter dinners is a hearty beef stew accompanied by fresh baked bread.   The bread of choice today is a Sourdough Baguette but almost anything freshly baked will do.

Meat

The meat is a chuck roast of about 3 lbs. Break apart along the seams and trim off all of the visible fat.  Cut into 3/4″ cubes

Dredge the meat pieces in flour which has some salt, pepper and granulated garlic added  . About 1c flour, 1/2 tsp salt , 1/2 tsp black pepper and about 1 tsp granulated garlic mixed.

With your largest and widest deep pan such as a dutch oven , melt 1.5 Tbsp bacon grease. Dredge 1/2 of the beef in the flour mix and then add in a single layer to the pan. Now on medium to medium high heat (it should not be smoking much if at all), let it sit for 8 minutes or until well browned on the lower side. Flip and let sit another 6-7 minute until browned. Now remove form the pan along with all of the delicious scrapings and set aside on a plate.  Add another 1.5 Tbsp bacon grease and do the same for the rest of the meat.  The careful browning of the meat is one of the most important steps in making the stew. The caramelization of the meat adds flavor and color. This step is the biggest contributor to the final results being a rich brown color rather than grey.

At the end of the cooking push the meat to the side, add 1.5 Tbsp sweet Paprika and continue cooking for another 2 minutes stirring after 1 minute.

Now add the rest of the ingredients below.

Potatoes and veggies

4 lbs russet potatoes peeled and cubed to about 3/4″

3 lbs carrots peeled and cut into 1/2″ chunks

3 large onions diced to about 1/2″

1 bulb of garlic finely chopped

Herbs & wine

2-4 Tbsp dried French Thyme

4 or 5 Bay leaves

1 tsp Coarse ground black pepper

1 tsp dried Oregano

1 liter burgundy

1 Tbsp Better than Bouillon vegetable base

1 small can (8 oz) tomato paste

1.5-2 c water

1/4 c flour  (balance of the flour used to dredge the meat)

Cooking

Cover the pan and bake at 300F for 4-6 hours. Stir every hour and be sure to taste the scrapings.

Serve with the fresh bread you baked in the meantime and more of the wine.